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V.I. Nikitin Institute of chemistry

734063, Dushanbe city, Republic of Tajikistan, 299/2, Aini Street,

tel: (+992 37) 225-80-95

The Institute of Chemistry was established on September 1, 1946. It was organized on the basis of the Leninabad analytical laboratory and chemical laboratory in Stalinabad. One of the organizers and the permanent director of the Institute for 25 years was a pupil of the prominent Russian scientist A.E. Favorskiy. The Government of the Republic, considering V.I. Nikitin contribution, in1977 the Institute of Chemistry was declared as V.I. Nikitin Institute of Chemistry.

The main directions of scientific researches of the institute at that time were the study of the chemical aspects of the natural resources of Tajikistan and the use of results for the needs of the country. The Institute of Chemistry was headed for the deployment of research in areas such as;

  • Fine organic synthesis by academician V.I. Nikitin
  • Chemistry of natural compounds by academician K.T. Poroshin, Dr. S.B. Davidyants 
  • Metallurgical processes by Corresponding member I.A. Gluhov, Dr. S.M. Basitova
  • Physico-chemical processes of enrichment of minerals by academician P.M. Solozhenkin
  • Chemistry of oil by  academician I.U. Numanov
  • Coal by Prof. Z.A. Rumyantseva

 

For the training of personnel, dozens of interns and graduate students were sent to academic institutions of the USSR in Moscow, Leningrad and Novosibirsk, as well as in academic institutions of the Union Republics in Tashkent, Kiev, Minsk and other cities. In addition, in the early seventies, chemical section of the Small Academy of Sciences and the annual chemical school for gifted students was organized. Training was also attended by the prominent scientists of the USSR including academicians, V.A. Kargin, N.A. Plate, G.G. Devyatyh, M.D. Mashkovsky, B.P. Zhukov, Yu.A. Buslaev, F.A. Kuznetsov, Professor T.N. Dymova and many others.

In the training of scientists, a major role was played by the Institute of Chemistry and trained more than 25 doctors and 200 candidates of sciences, and the institute became a center of training for higher education and the national economy. 

 
Polymers for medical applications 

In 1971, a famous scholar in the field of petrochemicals, Prof. I.U. Numanov became the director of the institute. By this time the Institute had 12 laboratories and one sector in which studies were conducted in the following areas;

 

  • fiber-forming polymers (Prof. I.Ya. Kalontarov)
  • Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (academician D.N. Pachajanov)
  • metallurgy of high purity metals and precision alloys (Prof. A.V. Vahobov)
  • mineral (academician P.M. Solozhenkin)
  • organic synthesis (Corresponding member E.M. Glazunova)
  • plasma-chemical processes (Dr. Yu.V. Valibekov)
  • rare and trace elements (Corresponding member I.A. Gluhov)
  • Pharmacology (academician K.H. Haydarov), chemistry of oil (academician I.U. Numanov, prof. I.M . Nasirov)
  • Chemistry of Natural Compounds (Prof. V.K. Burichenko)
  • Coal Chemistry (Prof. Z.A. Rumyantseva)
  • chemistry of pure fluoride materials (Prof. D.D. Ikromi). 

 

During this period, following several important areas was developed;

  • Chemistry of inorganic hydrides (academician U.M. Mirsaidov)
  • corrosion-resistant materials (Corresponding member I.N. Ganiev)
  • refractory materials (prof. M .N. Abdusalyamova)
  • heterocyclic compounds (Prof. I.M. Nasirov)
  • Biomedical Polymers (Corresponding member D.H. Khalikov)
  • Chemistry of cotton fiber (Dr. K.M. Makhkamov).

Scientists made a significant contribution to the development of basic research in chemistry. Some contribution was also made to the theory of chlorination of multivalent metals (Corresponding member I.A. Gluhov, Dr. S.S. Eliseev). This led to the development of the technology of low-temperature chloriding of poor tungsten-molybdenum ores, concentrates and enrichment of intermediate sub-standard products.

Methods of isolation and purification of fluorides of alkali and alkaline-earth elements (prof. D.D. Ikrom), which in the form of single crystals have high optical properties was developed.

Semiconductor and magnetic materials (Dr. M.N. Abdusalyamova, Dr. V.D. Abulhaev) was synthesized based on the stibides, antimonites and bismuthides of rare earth elements.

On the basis of improving the theory and practice of float zone melting, a technology was developed for producing high-purity metals (Dr. A.V. Vahobov, Corresponding member I.N. Ganiev, Dr. F.I. Obidov), alloys of aluminum, barium, strontium and other metals.

New processes of fossil purification were developed by the academician P.M. Solozhenkin, Dr. Z.A. Zinchenko, Dr. G.Yu. Pulatov and Dr. Z.R. Baratova. This led to the creation of the flotation method of mercury-antimony ores having commercial importance.

In detail, copper-bismuth deposits of Tajikistan (academician D.N. Pachajanov, Dr. Yu.Ya. Valiev) were studied, and methods of synthesis was developed to study the use of azo-dyes (Dr. M.J. Yusupov, Dr. A. Alihodzhaev) in the analysis of small amounts of metals with applications to the biogeochemical and hydro chemical. 


Products of complex treatment of argilites and kaoline of the Republic of Tajikistan

 

Synthesis and study of physico-chemical properties of inorganic hydrides was done by the academician U.M. Mirsaidov, prof. M.S. Pulatov, prof. R.F. Gatina.

Methods were developed for the processing of mineral raw materials, wastes, nepheline senates and medical salt disposal of sludge of TadAZ by the academician U.M. Mirsaidov, prof. H.S. Safiev, Dr. I.Sh. Normatov and Dr. J.E. Babaev.

Work on the chemistry of acetylenes showed the possibility of synthesis of tertiary alcohols of the three-atom spirits by the academician V.I. Nikitin, Corresponding member E.M. Glazunova, Dr. M.D. Isabaev, Dr. G .S. Sanyukovich). Further transformation of which allowed getting multiple-volilo glycerol esters of acetylene, among of which many physiologically active substances were found.

Chemical and biochemical evaluation of the Pamir forms of sea buckthorn was done by the Corresponding member E.M. Glazunova, academician K.H. Haydarov, Dr. N.D. Gachechiladze. They determined the content of flavonoids and studied the impact of sea buckthorn oil on the processes regeneration and treatment of ulcerative lesions of the stomach.

The methods of isolation and histone synthesis of the individual fragments was worked out by the academician K.T. Poroshin, Prof. V.K. Burichenko, Dr. G.F. Kasimov, Dr. L.I . Maryash, Dr. T.P. Kopitsya. They obtained oligopeptides of regular structure, synthetic models of certain fragments of natural proteins, the modification of alkaloids (by Dr. Yu.D. Sadykov, Dr. M. Kurbanov) to give a new biologically active substances.

An extensive data on the study of oxidation and oxidation products of lignite and coal was summarized by Prof. Z.A. Rumyantseva, Dr. V.B. Gartsman). Studies on heteroatomic components of heavy, sour crudes and oils of Tajik depression were performed by the academician I.U. Numanov, Prof. I.M. Nasyrov, Dr. V.V. Chayko). Prof. I.M. Niasy Prof. S.Sh. Shukurov, Dr. M.A. Kukaniev, Prof. A.H. Kadyrov, Dr. R. Usmanov, clarified the composition and nature of gray-and-mechanical nitrogen containing compounds. In addition they synthesized and studied the reactivity of the bicyclic condensed sulfur-containing systems and tiainden and tiaindans with the synthesis of new biologically active compounds.

Extensive studies were conducted for the regularities of thermo-oxidative degradation and stabilization of cellulose acetate and polyamides by Dr. I.J. Kalontarov, Dr. F.F. Niyazi, Dr. K.M. Mahkamov. The use of reactive dyes for the fiber-modified polymers and processes for producing of microcrystalline cellulose were studied by Dr. K.M. Mahkamov.

The research in the field of medical polymers based on monomers ethanol piper idol was done by the corresponding member D.H. Halikov, Dr. F.H. Safiulina, Dr., Z.B. Sharifov Dr. L.H. Plieva and on pectin’s was done by the corresponding member D.H. Halikov, Dr. Z.K. Muhiddinov, Dr. H.H. Avloev. This led to the development of methods of synthesis of linear, graft and cross-linked copolymers with a wide spectrum of biological actions. 

 

Micro capsules on the base of pectine proteine complexes 

At the end of 70s and early 80s, the institute of chemistry, annually received more than 40 inventor’s certificates, some of which were patented in England, USA, Switzerland, France and many of them were put into production.   

 

The products of laboratory of pharmacology

In particular, the production of solid rocket fuel was arranged at the "Navoiazot" and Isfara hydro-metallurgical plant by the academician U.M. Mirsaidov, Dr. M.S. Pulatov, Prof. R.F. Gatina). A method of waste management at the Tajik aluminum plant was developed by the academician U.M. Mirsaidov and corresponding member H.S.Safiev.

The methods of synthesis of barium, lithium fluoride, as well as optical ceramics were used by Prof. D.D. Ikromi, Prof. R. Ohunov, Dr. A.S. Paramzin, Dr. G. Dadabaeva in S. Vavilov (Moscow) and enterprise "Red Chemist" (St. Petersburg), and reagent KTADAF (Dr. M.Yu. Yusupov and Dr. A.A. Alihodzhaev) in Dushanbe and a number of other jewelry plants.

The works of academician P.M. Solozhenkin and his staff on the flotation of ores were used at the Almalyk Adrasman lead-zinc plants and aluminum alloys ALCHSK and AST-9 by Dr. A.V. Vahobov, corresponding member Ganiev, Dr. F.U. Obidov) in Novosibirsk aluminum plant and in hydro metallurgical plants of Isfara.

The antiepileptic drug "Karbatin" has been successfully tested in clinics in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tbilisi, Minsk and Dushanbe by the corresponding member E.M. Glazunova, academician K.H. Haydarov, Dr. N. Glebova) and hemosorbent "IHANT" by the corresponding member D.H. Halikov, Dr. F.H. Safiullina). Production of the latter drug has been established in the experimental workshop of the Institute of Chemistry, and pectin (Corresponding member D.H. Halikov, Dr. Z.K. Mukhiddinov) in the experimental workshop “Shahrinav”.

At the Tajik Aluminum Plant, a method of production of ferrosilicon and iron from the wastes by alternative technologies was introduced with a total economic benefit of about U.S. $ 1 million by the corresponding member I.N. Ganiev. At the same manufacturing plant, coagulants were produced by the corresponding member H.S. Safiev for water purification. The works of the Institute of Chemistry on the membranes were introduced by the corresponding member D.H. Halikov in the plant “Tajiktekstilmash” for the mass production of gas meters, and the method of purification and stabilization of the transparency of local wines by bentonite and polymer materials by the corresponding member D.H. Halikov at OJSC "Dushanbe" with economic efficiency 67 thousand somoni. 

 

Single crystals on the base of ytterbium, thulium, manganese and 

 

For achievements in science and implementation of research results following staff were awarded prizes;

  • P.M. Solozhenkin, N.I. Kopitsya, B.C. Pupkov were honored by prize of Council of Ministers
  • A.V. Vahobov, F.U. Obidov, G. A. Kozarenko, J.H. Khalikov I.G. Ganiev, Z.B. Sharifova, Z.K. Muhiddinov, U.M. Mirsaidov, D.N. Pachadzhanov by Abu Ali Ibn Sina State Prize of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of science and technology. 
  • For successful inventive activity I.J. Kalontarov, K.H. Haydarov, I.N. Ganiev, Z.A. Zinchenko and K.M. Mahkamov were awarded the honorary title “Honored Inventor of the Republic of Tajikistan”.

Institute of Chemistry, established broad academic ties, made numerous joint research with foreign countries, including the program “Intercosmos” and in the scientific programs of NATO, on the synthesis of derivatives of thiadiazole and study their biological activity with the Cancer Institute of Maryland (USA). International scientific cooperation, especially with the scientists of the CIS remains one of the priorities in the activities of the institute.

In 1987, Prof. W.M. Mirsaidov was elected as director of the Institute; served as President of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan (1995-2005). Since 2003, the Institute is headed by the academician D.H. Halikov.

Presently, main directions of research of the V.I.Nikitin Institute of Chemistry are;

  • Geochemistry of sedimentary processes, development and use of atomic emission, electrochemical and other methods of analysis of natural and technical materials;
  • Complex processing of mineral resources and industrial waste;
  • polymers with complex of special properties;
  • synthesis and study of biologically active synthetic and natural materials.

During 1991-2011, the Institute of Chemistry, in accordance with the above directions, published over 2,000 scientific papers, received 110 patents of the Republic of Tajikistan. At the Institute of the dissertation councils on chemical, technical, medical and biological sciences, 45 doctoral and 282 PhD theses were defended.

Now, the Institute has following eight laboratories;

  • Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry;
  • Integrated processing of raw materials and wastes;
  • enrichment of ores;
  • corrosion-resistant materials;
  • chemistry of high molecular compounds;
  • Organic Synthesis;
  • Heterocyclic Compounds;
  • pharmacology

A group for the implementation of scientific results was organized. Currently, the institute has 100 employees, including 5 academicians, one corresponding member of 18 doctors and 24 candidates of sciences.