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12:21, 20th September 2017
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S.U. Umarov physical and technical institute

734063, Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan, 299, Aini Street,

tel. (+992 37) 225-80-92 

The first scientific researches in the field of physical science at the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan connected with the organization in 1957 of the department of Physics and Mathematics by the President of the AS of Tajik SSR S.U. Umarov.

The department conducted research on the complex physical, physic-chemical and structural properties of binary and complex semiconductor compounds, the interaction of negative ions with the surface of metals, methods for increasing the sensitivity of emission spectral analysis and nuclear physics.

During 1957-1964 in the division the laboratory of nuclear physics, semiconductor physics, the physics of strength and spectroscopy were started. In 1964, on the basis of these laboratories of the Division of Physics and Mathematics, the Physical Technical Institute was organized now bearing the name of its organizer - S.U. Umarov. Institution was headed by the academicians A.A. Adhamov the first director (1964-1992), R.M. Marupov (1992-1999), S. Odinaev (1999-2001) and A. Abdurasulov (2001-2005). Since 2006 prof. H.H. Muminov is the director of the Institute.

Currently, the institute has the following academic divisions:

  • International Center for Nuclear Physics Research
  • Center for the study and use of renewable energy sources sector of theoretical Physics
  • laboratory of crystals, Physical Acoustics Laboratory
  • Laboratory of Molecular Spectroscopy
  • Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics
  • Laboratory of kriophysics
  • Laboratory of Quantum Electronics.

 

The most important tasks in these units of the Institute cover the following areas of modern physics: nuclear physics, theoretical physics, condensed matter physics, optics and quantum electronics, physical and technical acoustics, physical and technical problems of energy and atmospheric physics, the application of physical methods of research in medicine. 

 

Experimental set up on the base of position sensitive director with gadolinium converter 

In the field of nuclear physics perspective for Tajikistan, studies of mineral deposits using a mu-meson of cosmic origin were developed. Work was done on the application of methods of activation analysis in different areas of economy. At present, the studies on the physics of high and ultrahigh energies, which are purely fundamental, are in progress.

Investigation of the mechanism of interaction of particles and nuclei with nuclei at high energies includes the analysis of a giant superfamily “Tajikistan”, registered in the X-ray emulsion chambers of the international experiment “Pamir” during 1988-1998. “Halo” of superfamily in the central part has energy of 4.8*1016 eV, which is the maximum energy of interaction of all registered energies in the world with large X-ray emulsion chambers.

Based on the results of the investigation, the complete destruction of the atomic nuclei in inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions an empirical dependence of the probability of total destruction of heavy emulsion nuclei on the atomic weight of the incident nucleus and on its cross-section was established, which can be used to calculate output energy for electronuclear method of producing energy.    

Samples for the investigation of radioactive in the air aerosol fallout were prepared and tested. The instrument was designed to find anomalous zones of depositions of the Cosmo genic radionuclide Be-7 on the surface of the soil, vegetation and water through a vertical flow of air masses from the upper layers of the atmosphere and the tropopause.   

In order to continue the investigations started in 1971 in the framework experiment of the “Pamir”, in 2008 an agreement was signed between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Government of Russian Federation on the establishment and operation of the International Research Center “Pamir-Chacaltoy” (IRC-PC) for joint nuclear and astrophysical research of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays.

In August 2009, the Pamir expedition was organized, in which two layer deep X-ray emulsion chamber with an air gap size of 2.5m and an area of 36m2 was assembled and launched.

In “Condensed Matter Physics” research was conducted in the physics of semiconductors. Technology was developed for the production of А2В5 semiconductors and composite structures.  The doping by impurities was carried out, improving the quality of materials, study of their physical-chemical properties and the creation of devices based on them. A number of new classes of single crystals of А3В5 type and the type or rare earth phosphates АВО4 having piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and luminescent and other properties were grown. The anisotropy of the electrical properties of complex semiconductors in the extrinsic conduction was found. Technology for the manufacturing of thermistors based on indium selenite and telluride of thallium was developed. Diodes the sources of spontaneous radiation were developed and these work at deep cooling and at room temperature. These diodes have been used in electronics to adjust the optical devices and photo detectors.

The helium and nitrogen cryogenic laboratory liquefiers’ allow developing physical methods for the investigation of solids at low temperatures. 

The method of solid phase synthesis from mixture for growing of bulk single crystal, based on lithium-bismuth moly date and sodium-bismuth tungstate was developed.

 

 

 
Bulk single crystals of molybdates (volframates) sodium-bismuth 

Theoretical studies, including computer experiments (Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods) allowed to solve a number of fundamental questions of molecular-kinetic theory of gases and liquids, the nature of relaxation processes and transport phenomena in them, thermodynamic, dynamic and optical properties of defective crystals, the theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena in solids and liquid crystals, to determine the effect of impurities on the dynamics of the crystal lattice. 

Molecular theory of relaxation processes, structural relaxation, transport phenomena, elastic and acoustic properties of classical fluids were developed. A number of new theoretical results on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of condensed systems were obtained. The anomalous behavior of the propagation velocity and absorption coefficient of sound waves in molecular and liquid crystals near of phase transitions was studied.

Physical (acoustic, piezoelectric, optical, magneto and segnetouprugie) properties of condensed matter due to the excitation and dynamics of the quasiparticles (excitants, phonons, magnons, etc.) and their complexes (polaronspolitons related magneto-elastic solitons and etc) were investigated. A method of generalized coherent states, taking into account the theoretical group-theoretic properties and the symmetry of the initial Hamiltonian, the functional integral method to derive the Hamiltonian and the semi classical equations of motion was developed.      

In “Optics”, Quantum Electronics, studies on the development of semiconductor injection lasers, the laser therapy and laser bio stimulation, the study by IR spectroscopy of protein fractions isolated from healthy and diseased organisms, as well as, the study of semiconductor emitters and solar energy converters based on compounds А2В5 that can find and have found wide application in medicine was conducted.  

Technology of obtaining a porous structure on the surface of indium phosphide wafers, allowing the electrochemical etching to obtain nanoporous films was developed.

Under the scientific supervision of academician R.M. Marupov the ordering of spectroscopic characteristics of different cotton varieties and selection of two classes of modified fiber forming polymers, which allows wider to use of integrated spectroscopic methods for studying the molecular structure of polymers, the mechanism of cotton wilt disease and the mechanism of coloring the modified fiver-forming polymers was done.

In the field of physical acoustics, photo acoustic method of nondestructive testing of solids and biological objects, acoustic-emission method of control of chemical processes in solids and acusto-emission method for determining of the degree of conversion of solids at thermal decomposition was designed. 

Studies in “Physical-technical problems of power engineering” were devoted to the development of renewable energy sources, important advantages of which are inexhaustibility and environmental cleanliness.

Areas of research are focused to the development of elements, devices, and the principles of renewable energy sources (RES) utilization, assessing the potential of RES in Tajikistan and the energy efficiency of their use.

Center for the study of RES of the Institute is the leading renewable energy performer and coordinator of research for the realization of “A comprehensive program for widespread use of renewable energy in 2007-2015”.  

In three districts of Khatlon region, in some areas of Republican subordination, solar photovoltaic plants, and solar collectors for heating of water, wind and bio gasification plants were installed, commissioned and monitored. 


Solar water heater at Medical  Center in Dushanbe city
 

In Tursunzoda, Shahrinav and several other regions of the Republic, micro hydro power plants of capacity 4.5kW, designed and manufactured in collaboration with “Tajik-hydraulic units” were installed.

In collaboration with the Japanese scientists, first photo-sensitive film of high gravity from the vapor phase and from solution, which will be used to create highly sensitive solar cells based on organic semiconductors, was fabricated.

In the atmospheric physics, researches of atmospheric aerosol and ozone are regularly conducted for the measurements of total ozone in a vertical column of the atmosphere at different times of the year. Studies of samples of dust aerosol by photo acoustic spectroscopy in the UV and visible spectral regions and comparison of these results with those obtained by IR spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance, allowed to find the identity of the natural terrestrial and Martian dust aerosol. The results of these studies are urgently needed to meet the challenges of climate and weather forecasting, as well as clarify the role of aerosols in their change.   

 

Solar photometer CE-318 (CIMEL, Francе) for measurement of optic and microphysical characteristic of aerosols in atmosphere 

The use of physical methods in medicine including traditional methods as cryotheraphy, magnetic therapy of tumors, laser therapy and methods of molecular spectroscopy in order to develop new ways of diagnosing and monitoring of the course of treatments were developed. The Institute introduced cryodevices, methods of treatment of patients with an infrared laser into medical practice 

 

 

Cryosurgery instrument 

The Institute actively and fruitfully cooperates with research centers in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Japan, France, Germany, USA, Portugal, Austria, Pakistan and Iran.

In future, the institute will focus on the problem of efficient use of alternative energy sources, to the study of the interaction of ultrahigh energy particles in cosmic rays with nuclei of the atmosphere by large emulsion chambers. This will be the part of framework of international projects, for the growth of new ferroelectric single crystals for fundamental studies of the properties of condensed systems.