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11:41, 24th September 2017
September 2017
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Institute of geology, seismological construction and seismology

734063, Dushanbe city, Republic of Tajikistan, 267, Aini Street,

tel: (+992 37) 225-77-69

A systematic study of geology, mineral resources and natural conditions of Tajikistan began in the twentieth century and is associated with the activity of Soviet- German, Pamir, Tajikistan complex and the Tajik-Pamir expeditions.

In 1941, geological sector of the Tajik base of the Academy of sciences of the USSR was transformed into the institute. S.N. Ilin was appointed as the first director of the Geological Institute. Later this position was occupied by I.K. Nikitin (1944-1945), B.L. Lichkov (1945-1946), S.F. Mashkovtsev (1947-1949), I.V. Belov (1949-1950) and P.A. Pankratov (1950-1953). In 1941 in the institute three sectors general geology, ore mining, hydrogeology and engineering geology were established.

In 1951, the Institute of Geology became member of the Academy of sciences of the Tajik SSR. By this time, the institute created new divisions including the sector of coal and oil, X-ray laboratory, a geological museum and grinding workshop. In 1953, correspondent member of the Academy of sciences of the Tajik SSR R.B. Baratov became director and served the Institute for 35 years. A great contribution to the establishment and development of the institute was made by the academicians of the Academy of sciences A.P. Nedzvetsky, P.A. Pankratov, S.A. Zaharov, S. Yusupova, M.R. Dzhalilov, correspondent member of the Academy of sciences M.M. Kuhtikov, V.I. Budanov and G.H. Salibaev. During 1988-1994, academician M.R. Dzhalilov became the director of the institute. During 1997-2010, the institute was led by corresponding member of the Academy of sciences A.R. Fayziev.

The main areas of research of the Institute of Geology includeed regional geology and tectonics, paleontology and stratigraphy, magmatism and ore formation, hydrogeology and engineering geology, lithology, and mineralogy. Research was conducted researches on neotectonics and seism tectonics, palynology and pale biology, petrology and metallogeny, and thermo-mineral balneological analysis of groundwater, ore mineralogy, thermo-barogeo chemistry, lithofacies and formation analysis of sedimentary rocks and associated minerals.

In a short time, the institution has become a recognized center of research in the sciences about the earth. Since then, by the scientists and paleontologists, new data on the taxonomy, phylogeny, evolution, and stratigraphic pale biographic differentiation of various groups of fossil organisms was obtained and summarized. The regularities of the vertical distribution of the studied fossils allowed developing new regional and local stratigraphic schemes of the biogeographic zoning of Mesozoic basins of Tajikistan. In addition, numerous traces of life, including unique dinosaur footprints, the new genera and species of fossil animal were described. Based on the numerous amounts of data, a stratigraphic Dictionary of Tajikistan, including the description of more than 130 stratigraphic units was prepared.

As a result of paleontological and stratigraphic studies, multi-volume edition of “Atlas of fossil fauna and flora of Tajikistan”, “Atlas of Triassic Invertebrates of the Pamirs”, and “Stratigraphic dictionary of the Pamirs” were published. At present, “Stratigraphic dictionary of Tajikistan” is under preparation for publication. This will highlight the work on the regional geology of the Pamirs and Central Tajikistan, stratigraphic of the upper Peleozoic Karamazar, Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Southern Pamirs and adjacent areas of Afghanistan.

Red-Tertiary deposits in Tajikistan, mineralogical features of loess of southern in Tajikistan and Central Asia were studied. Zonal division of the Neogene stratigraphic scale of red deposits of south of the country it was proposed.

Stratigraphic paleontological researches of the institution were carried out in close collaboration with many scientists and scientific institutions of the neighbor and foreign countries as well (Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Germany, Poland, Mongolia, Austria, USA, Canada, etc.).

In the topic of scientific researches of the institute, the important place was occupied by lithological study of different age sedimentary and volcanic-sedimentary formations. A correlation scheme was made for Meso-Cenozoic complexes, litho-faces, paleo geographical and formational maps. Perspective oil and gas accumulations in the Cretaceous Paleogene deposits of the south-western Tajikistan, coal producing horizons of Jurassic and Permian age in the territories of the southern slope of the Hissar Ridge, South-West Darvaz and North Pamir was highlighted and the distribution of strati form Afghanistan-Pamir-Kunlunsk copper-bearing province was found. In addition, Titanium Triassic deposits of South-East zone of the Pamirs were also found.

On the territory of the Republic, more than 30 deposits of bentonite raw materials were found. First time rankings of bentonite deposits in the relation to specific sectors of national economic production it was done. On the recommendation of scientists, bentonites are currently used in the wine, textile, claydite industry and agriculture in various technological processes.

Results of lithological researches of the institute were published as separate books following books;

  • “Lithology and formation of conditions of Cretaceous eastern part of the Tajik Depression”
  • “Geology and petroleum potential of sedimentary formations of Mesozoic and Cenozoic of Tajikistan”
  • “Lithology and stratigraphic oil and gas stratigraphy of the Tajik Depression”
  • “Upper flysch formation of Hissar-Alai”
  • “Milestones and the results of lithological studies in Tajikistan and the prospects for their further development”
  • “Bentonite in Tajikistan, their classification, genesis and use in the national economy”
  • “Atlas of carbonate rocks and rock forming organisms of the upper Senonian-Paleocene of Tajik Depression”
  • “Tertiary continental sediments of Tajikistan”.

Large contributions were made by the scientists of the Institute in the study of the tectonic structure of Tajikistan. On the basis of tectonic and seismotecnotic studies the maps of neotectonics and seism tectonics, seism genic zones of Tajikistan were prepared and were recommended for design and construction of large hydropower projects. Based on the data, following books were published on this topic;

  • “Tectonics of the Central Pamir”
  • “The most important regularities of the structure and development of the folded geosynclinals complexes of the Pamirs”
  • “Zonal oogenesis and seismicity”
  • “The most important faults of Tajikistan and their systematics”
  • “The most important seism genic faults of Tajikistan and the assessment of seismic hazard of mountain areas at the example of Tajikistan”
  • “Intermountain basin of Hissar-Alai on the latest stage of geological development”

 

Petrological studies involving the study of processes of magmatism and metamorphism, the peculiarities of their manifestation in different zones and districts and their connection with the processes of ore genesis are the priority researches of scientists of the institute.

A detailed diagram for age sequence of formation of magmatic complexes of Tajikistan was made which clarifies the basic features of its magmatism and endogenic metallogeny. Of particular importance are studies that establish the lateral heterogeneity of petrographic intrusive complexes in the folded regions of Hissar-Alay and Pamir.

The study of the intrusive complexes of Karamazar had led to the development of a new chronological scheme of magmatism to the definition of the geochemical and metal specialization of these complexes, to the establishment of the links with certain types of ore. A detailed diagram of the evolution of geodynamics and magmatism of Kurama area of the Middle Tien Shan was developed. Petrology and geochemistry shoshonite - latit - monzonitoid association as well as petrochemical characteristics and temperature conditions of formation of ultrapotassic rhyolites were studied.

A significant contribution to solving the problems of magmatic geology of the Pamirs was made. A chronological scheme of the first Alpine intrusive magmatism in the Western Pamirs was made. Vertical zonation of deep intrusions exposed in Western Pamir was studied and ore potential of the distribution of accessory minerals in them was found. Features of some of the granitoid massifs of the region, studied volcano-plutonic complexes of the Central Pamir were described.

The results of petrological studies of scientists of the Institute formed the basis of major monographs and books as;

  • “Petrography of Tajikistan” (two volumes)
  • “Endogenous formation of the Pamirs”
  • “metamorphic formations of Tajikistan”
  • “The division of stratified and intrusive formations in Tajikistan”
  • “Petrology and geochemistry of magmatic formations in Tajikistan”
  • “Geodynamics and ore shoshonite-latite magmatism in the Middle Tien-Shan”,
  • “Geological sketches of the Pamir-Alai”
  • “South Tien Shan Belt of diamondiferous alkaline bases”

In the frame of the researches of the institute, scientists collaborate with relevant agencies, Academy of Sciences (IGEM, IPE), as well as the Freiberg Mining Academy in Germany, and is involved in the implementation of Project A-1418 ISTC program.

In recent years, important results of the petrografical geochemical model of gold-bearing glaucophane-greenschist formation were obtained on the example of Fan Karateghin metamorphic belt of the formation of metamorphic granite-gneiss bodies with mineralization,

In addition, analysis of potential gold-bearing structures Kevrono Dzhafrsk structure, in northern Pamir was conducted.

Important role in the achievements of the institute belongs to the mineralogical and mineragenic researches. Institute scientists studied the main features of the spatial distribution of endogenous mineralization of the Republic, the peculiarities of mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of gold, silver-base metal, fluorite, celestine, antimony and mercury deposits and quartz veins, P-T parameters and their formation and developed search, forecast and evaluation criteria for different types of mineralization. 

In Pamir-Himalayan belt, presence of precious stones and rare metals, revealed more than 20 new minerals including Baratovit, Zeravshanit, Surkhobit, Tajiks, Sogdianait, Tianshanit, dusmatovit, Sokoloit, Sienkovichit, Maleevit, moskovinit, Turkestanit etc.

The latest achievement of magmatic geology of Tajikistan was the investigation of the geodynamic conditions for granitic formations. For the first time, subduction, collision and accretion-collision granitiodno-magmatic formations and systems of active continental margins were described in detail. 

The results of minerals researches were published in;

  • “Mineralogy of Tajikistan”
  • “Proceedings of the Institute of Geology”
  • “Mineralogy, Geochemistry and formation conditions of gold-sulfide deposits in the formation of magnesian skarns (Central Tajikistan)”
  • “Mineralogy, Geochemistry and genesis of some endogenous deposits of Tajikistan”
  • “Mineralogy, genesis, and distribution of fluorite deposits of Central Tajikistan”
  • “Geologogenetic model of fluorite formation (on the example of deposits of Tajikistan)”
  • “Mineralogy and conditions of formation of Large Konimansur”

Important scientific and practical results have been obtained on tectonics. Based on the results of research in Central Asia, especially in Tajikistan, a new interpretation of the laws of formation of mountainous terrain, orogenies, covering the genesis of folds, the new genetic classification of folds were developed. The study of the tectonics of Tajikistan and neighboring areas was proposed. Revealed general regularities of tectonic development were applied to the south-west Asia. Theoretical developments have allowed giving specific practical recommendations on the direction of geological prospecting and drilling for oil and gas in the southern Tajikistan.

Geotechnical studies allowed making map of the engineering-geological zoning of the territory of Tajikistan, in order to identify areas that are the most dangerous to landslides and avalanches and to establish criteria for the prediction of these phenomena. Atlas of specialized engineering and geological maps of Tajikistan was prepared. Recommendations were given regarding management of mountain areas for industrial and civil construction. The obtained results are included in the following major publications;

  • “Hydrogeological study of irrigation and reclamation activities in Tajikistan”
  • “Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Tajikistan”
  • “Landslides in Tajikistan”
  • “Mineral water in Tajikistan”
  • “Dushanbe artesian basin”

 

With regard to the conditions of Tajikistan - the impact zone plates of Gondwan and Laurasia, young orogenic areas, the particular importance and relevance are the studies on neo-and seism tectonics. Based on the study of geological conditions for the appearance of destructive earthquakes in southern Tajikistan, the seismotectonic method of seysmo-zoning method was justified. This method was applied in the construction of Nurek and Rogun hydropower plants that are on the most important seismogenic zone of Tajikistan. Based on the latest movements on deep-seated faults of the ancient burial, the first-order faults can generate seismic tremors up to 9 points or more. The studies on paleoseismo dislocations allowed objectively evaluating the development of a large seismic regime in time and the maximum possible strength of earthquakes in the region.

Institute of Seismology was organized in 1951 on the basis of Geophysical sector of the Tajik Branch of the AS RT of the USSR and the three seismic stations, "Dushanbe", "Kulyab" and "Obigarm." Its opening was an important milestone in the development of seismological science in Tajikistan.
In connection with the planned construction of a broad program in Tajikistan of large hydraulic plants and other economic facilities at South-Tajik territorial-production complex the seismic zoning of the Vakhsh River and the Hissar valley was done. In mid-50's, dense network of seismic stations equipped with highly sensitive equipment that allowed in a short time to get a significant amount of material for research was organized.  An important result of research of seismologists was the development of methodology for quantifying the seismic hazard and seismic zoning that was widely used later in other seismically active regions of the USSR.
In 1958, the Institute of Seismology was transformed into the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology of Academy of Sciences of the Tajik SSR (TISSS). In the Institute, new sectors of the scientific study of the seismic stability of buildings were started.

The first director of the Institute of Seismology was Dr. P.G. Semenov (1952-1953). Later Institute was headed by Dr. V.N. Bune (1953-1954), Dr. V.N. Gaysky (1954-1964), Ph.D. S.I. Vorozhtsov (1964-1965), academician S.H. Negmatullaev (1965-2004), Correspondent member J. Nizomov (2004-2011).

Institute of Seismology, made a huge amount of observations of the seismicity of the territory, developed quantitative methods for estimation of seismic hazard. The institute was first deployed to work on earthquake prediction in the Soviet Union.
Institute prepared and published a map showing the most likely locations of large earthquakes on the territory of Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan. To date, prediction of earthquakes for these areas was justified for almost all selected on the predictive maps of places.

In the institute the regional center for earthquake prediction in Central Asia and Kazakhstan was operated, which combined the efforts of seismological institutions in the region in addressing this important issue.
In the early 80’s of twentieth century on the basis of the Institute together with the Institute of Earth Physics of the USSR’s Academy of Sciences and Institute of Electronic Control Machines of Soviet Union, an automated system for earthquake prediction (ASPZ) was organized for the first time in the Soviet Union which startedits operation in Dushanbe in 1982.

The procedure was developed for the experimental study of high seismic stability of retaining structures in models with seismic stability. Procedures were implemented on the field model of Nurek dam in the 1/50 part of the actual size of the dam, built and tested at the seismic stable models on the special training ground near the Nurek dam and on models in 1/200 and 1/300 of full size. Tests were made in the laboratory conditions at the Institute seismic platform. 

The properties of bulk materials and loess soils to build a dam of hydroelectric plant were studied. Work performed at the Institute allowed to solve the problems of seismic stability of unique high-altitude Nurek dam and in the future to successfully conduct complex researches of seismic stability for Rogun dam and other hydraulic plants on the rivers Vakhsh and Panj.

Objects in the full-scale were tested in the pilot site “Lyaur” designed to test buildings, structures, power and process equipment with special explosions, simulating an earthquake. A number of sites, almost all the equipment for recording of strong motions have been tested. Results of recent studies to determine the scope of the method of simulating earthquakes by explosers bombings showed the possibility of using designed in the methods of simulating earthquakes TISSS explosions for testing of complex engineering structures, including long bridges.

Institute carried out co-operation with U.S. academic institutions for the study of excited seismicity in the region of the Nurek reservoir and strong movements in the whole territory of Tajikistan.

Under laboratory conditions, using equipment developed at the institute, influence of mechanical micro vibrations of the environment on plastic deformations of materials was found. This opened the possibility of special field experiments on the effects of vibration in the focal zone in order to reduce the released seismic energy. This experiment was performed in the Nurek hydroelectric power station, where as a vibrator, catastrophic water discharge of the dam was used.

To carry out seismic zoning and research of seismicity in the middle and upper sides of the river Vakhsh, where it was planned to build hydroelectric systems and the network of seismic stations is operated. With an extensive network of seismic, geophysical, deform-metric, geomagnetic, geochemical stations equipped with modern equipment, earthquake precursors is searched. Continuous monitoring of earthquake precursors in Dushanbe and Garm polygons allowed finding a sufficiently long time series of some prognostic parameters of significant deviations from the normal background.

The institute provided solution successfully to the problems of seismic stability of Nurek dam, conducted seismic studies for future Rogun dam and other hydraulic structures on the rivers. Detailed working is also performed for the seismic zoning of cities, towns and major economic projects such as Vakhsh nitrogen fertilizer plant, Tajik Aluminum Plant, Javan Electrochemical Plant, Kanibadam Soda Plant, Anzob GOK and others of the Republic. For more than 20 cities of the country, maps of seismic zoning were developed to allow the construction taking into account the seismic hazard.

The Institute carried out researches associated with the development and application of numerical methods in structural mechanics, with the theory of seismic stability, engineering seismology, and fracture mechanics. Based on the development and application of concentrated strains, calculations are done considering physical nonlinearity of materials and the results obtained on three-dimensional model of a plate system. Based on the method of boundary equations, mathematical models were developed, that allowed to explore the stress-strain state of the various systems, including underground structures of Rogun plant. Stress concentrations were investigated in the underground facilities of Rogun plant, considering the anisotropy of the rock mass. In addition, the problem of the influence of human activities on environmental change due to the construction of large reservoirs is investigated.

The Institute continues international scientific cooperation on the reduction of seismic risk of existing building settlements in Tajikistan, first in capital Dushanbe, rehabilitation and modernization of the network of seismological stations and service of strong motions, rehabilitation and modernization of the control system for large hydro-technical facilities, primarily for the Nurek hydroelectric, Sangtuda and constructing Rogun plants.

The Institute has established close cooperation with the leading scientific centers of Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Georgia, as well as institutions and agencies of foreign countries including China, India, Iran, Turkey, USA, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, France and others.

On February 4, 2011 the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan merged the Institute of Geology of the RT and Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan into the Institute of Geology, Earthquake Engineering and Seismology of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan and Dr. Yu. Mamadzhanov was appointed as director of the Institute.

Institute of Geology, Earthquake Engineering and Seismology of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan is now the country's leading organization for scientific research of the geological structure and mineral resources, seismology and earthquake engineering and is designed to conduct research on both the fundamental and applied problems. The main objective of the institute at present is to develop the methods and guidelines for the development of mineral resources of Tajikistan, seismic risk reduction and ensuring the seismic safety of the public. At present the Institute consists of 10 research laboratories including paleontology and stratigraphy, petrology and geochemistry, the lithosphere, minerals, and geo-environmental assessment of seismic hazards, integrated geophysical studies, seismic regional industries; earthquake resistance of buildings, seismic stability of hydraulic structures, the theory of seismic stability and simulation.

The Institute has 4 additional auxiliary groups i.e. seismic monitoring service, about 50 seismic, seismic chemical engineering and seismic stations located throughout the country, a group of analysis of the physico-chemical methods, a group of geo-information technologies; Geological Museum.

The main areas of research of the Institute are as follows:

In the field of geology:

  • the study of geological structures, material composition, origin and distribution of minerals in Tajikistan;
  • the fauna and their application in the stratification of sedimentary rocks of Tajikistan;
  • petrological, geochemical studies of the origin and of the potential ore-bearing magmatic formations of different geodynamic settings of the Pamir and Tien Shan;
  • development of petrological and geochemical models of the lithosphere folded regions of the Pamirs and Tien Shan, the study of the role of the mantle and crust in the formation of mineral resources.

In the field of earthquake engineering:

  • investigation of residential and industrial construction (survey states of buildings during earthquakes and other dynamic movements, assessment of technical condition and deterioration of existing buildings and structures, testing of buildings and structures and identify their components under different strain);
  • Study of seismic stability and reliability of hydraulic structures (evaluation of the stress-strain state operated hydraulic structures, conducting research for a planned and under construction buildings);
  • accounting and inventory of buildings and structures, including underground, building a separate building structures under static, dynamic, seismic, wind and other loads.

In the field of seismology:

  • Seismic monitoring and evaluation of seismic hazard within the cities and towns, territories, construction of large industrial plants and hydraulic structures (general seismic zoning, a detailed seismic zoning and microseismic zoning);
  • assessment of the risk effects of earthquakes (landslides, rock falls, soil moisture, etc.);
  • assessment of seismic hazard within the big cities.

Currently, the institute has 280 employees, including seven doctors (including 2 academicians of RT, 2 Corresponding Member of AS RT) and 22 candidates of science.