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11:43, 24th September 2017
September 2017
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Kh.Yu. Yusufbekov Pamir biological institute

736002, Khorog city, Republic of Tajikistan, 1, Kholdorova Street

Tel: (+992 3522) 2-80-20

Pamir Biological Institute was established in 1969 on the basis of the Pamir Botanical Gardens, the Pamir Biological Station and Ishkashim reference point on agriculture. Its first director was academician Kh.Yu. Yusufbekov from 1969-1981. From 1981-1988, the Institute was led by the corresponding member Dr. O.A. Aknazarov, from 1988-1996 it was supervised by the corresponding member U.H. Kholdorov. From 1996 to present, academician O.A. Aknazarov is the director of the Institute. 

Obtaining virus-free potato tubers from plant seeds

 

The institute is located in Khorog -  administrative center of Gorno-Badakhshan and Autonomous Oblast of the Republic of Tajikistan. The Institute has 46 employees, including 3 doctors and 11 candidates.

The main directions of scientific research of the institute are;

  • to develop scientific principles and methods of protection, management and monitoring of the biological diversity of flora of the Pamir
  • to study vegetation cover and productivity of grazing areas, problems of genetics, breeding and seed crops
  • the collection and compilation of data bank on the local gene pool crops and conservation
  • development of scientific bases for introduction and acclimatization of plants in the highlands, the problems of environmental plant physiology and biochemistry, physiological and biochemical aspects of plant adaptation to extreme factors of the high mountains of Pamir
  • the impact of global climate change on alpine ecosystems

The institute includes;

  • department of plant and animal biodiversity;
  • Laboratory of Experimental Plant Ecology;
  • Laboratory of mountain fruit production;
  • A.V. Gurskiy Pamir Botanical Garden;
  • Museum of “Nature”. 

 

Growing vegetable plants in geothermal greenhouses

 

The Institute has following stations and points;

  • experimental plots at the Institute (Khorog, 2320 m above sea level);
  • Chechekti stronghold in the Eastern Pamir (3860 m above sea level);
  • Ishkashim reference point (2600m above sea level);
  • Vanj reference point (1600 m above sea level);
  • Rogaksky reference point (1150m above sea level);
  • Dzhelondi agroecological station (3600 m above sea level). 

 

Collection of Canadian trees in the reference section

 

At the Institute, almost 20,000 copies of biological literature are available. In the herbarium of the institute there are about 15,000 sheets of flowering plants.

The main results of scientific researches are;

  • New data obtained on the mechanism of interaction of environmental factors of high mountains and phyto-hormones in the growth and production processes and in the morphogenesis of plants.
  • Characterization of the accumulation of endogenous stimulators and inhibitors of growth depending on the altitude habitats of plants and the degree of extremeness of environment.

Experimentally it was established that ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a potent morphogenetic factor in shaping the kind of habit of plants, usually with a reduced length of the stem and short internodes. Alpine plants, as wild forms and objects of mountain farming are much more resistant to UV and have a wide range of adaptive traits: thick cuticle of leaf pubescence, the high content of anthocyanin and flavonoids, multicellularity. With the cutting off the UV radiation in the leaf of tomato plants by thickening of tissue assimilation, cuticle endoderm and the number of stomata on both sides were observed.

It is shown that the diversity of Gorno-Badakhshan soft wheat occupies a leading position in Central Asia. Thus, of the 273 known species of wheat in Central Asia, 151 wheat species occurs in the Western Pamirs. Almost 69 varieties of local soft and 11 dwarf wheat were collected. Among these, five species were new for science, which were found in the villages of Yapshorv and Ruhch of Bartang Valley.

 

New introduces Rose in a botanical garden

 

The most promising lines of barley with a high content of grain protein and lysine were identified. From the local varieties, a new mutant form of ligulelessball wheat Bobilo was obtained. Using diallel analysis, breeding and genetic control of economically important traits of barley in Western Pamirs was studied. 

Breeders of the Institute launched a new variety of triticale Badakhshan, which is characterized by high-yield (47-50 kg/ha) and is most suited to the climatic conditions of Badakhshan. Its grade passed trial in the Republic of Tajikistan and the issue of its zoning is discussed.

 

Greenhouse for propagation flower crops

 

Chemical composition and varieties of dry fruits was identified. Extensive polymorphism of a walnut, high-color thin skin olive ripening and shape of a walnut is introduced. It was found that in Pamirs, only two types of white and black mulberries grow. Varieties and forms of mulberry of different kinds with high yield of sugar were also found. It is shown that in the Western Pamirs and Darvaz, according to the inventory of fruit trees, the gene pool of wild and cultivated forms and varieties of fruit crops is diverse and this gene pool may serve as a starting material for breeding new varieties of fruit crops for the needs of horticulture in the mountainous regions of Central Asia. Among the examined species, varieties and forms, dozens of these that do not require additional selection are recommended for implementation in production.

The technology of growing seedlings of fruit trees to create industrial-type gardens on rocky mountain slopes was developed. The methods and forms of vegetative and seed propagation of fruit species and their wild relatives for the conditions of Badakhshan were established.

A.V. Gurskiy tested thousands of species, varieties and forms of trees, ornamental, herbaceous plants in Pamir Botanical Garden. The methodology of introduction of plants from different geographical zones and continents in the Western Pamirs was developed. A master plan of reconstruction and construction of the botanical garden irrigation networks and water pumping station was prepared and implemented. As a result, area of the garden has increased to 118 hectares and the area of floral parts was increased by 2-4 times. The floral departments of Europe, the Crimea the Caucasus, North America, East Asia, and Central Asia were developed.

In recent years, a collection of conifers is supplemented with 80 species and the collection of garden over the past 40 years has tripled.

In the botanical garden, a demonstration site of rare and endangered plant species, which grow 80 species of plants, was established. The collection of medicinal plants is 70 species of annual and perennial plants. Garden nurseries for landscaping works prepare annually seven thousand flowers and ornamental plants. In greenhouses of botanical garden every year a large number of seedlings flowering plants is prepared.

 

 

Conifers in the Botanical Garden

 

Systematically, the list (delektus) of seeds collected in the garden and in the Pamir is published. The exchange of seeds and plants with 120 recipients of 40 botanical gardens near and far abroad is fulfilled. The range of trees and shrubs, ornamental plants and turf areas for landscaping Badakhshan, which includes more than 180 missing species, is recommended.

In the museum “Nature” of the Institute, the history of studies of the natural resources of the Pamirs from ancient times to the present is presented. The contribution of scientists in the study of biodiversity of flora and fauna of the highlands is shown. There are well represented herbariums of local flora, insect fauna collection, stuffed animals, numerous maps, charts, tables, diagrams, describing the biological resources of the Pamirs. Many paintings reflect the unique landscapes of mountainous land. It also presents everyday objects highlanders, glassware, pottery, and stole-solution. Of particular interest are the exhibits of local precious and semiprecious stones of the Pamirs.

The results of scientific research of institute staff were published in six monographs forged in 5 scientific and practical recommendations, more than 60 scientific journals of the Republic and the CIS and in foreign countries.

 

The main scientific directions of the Institute in the near future are:

  • the study of physiological and biochemical bases of plant resistance to extreme factors of the high mountains, the mechanisms of plant adaptation to stress;
  • study of areas and resources of medicinal plants of the Pamirs, the preparation of planting material for laying of artificial plantations, development of technology for cultivation of medicinal plants;
  • identification of species and varieties of planes of two crops promising for cultivation in Badakhshan;
  • identification and introduction of new varieties of annual and perennial forage crops with high nutrient content and the development of technology for their cultivation;
  • collecting and studying the gene pool of cultivated plants and their relatives in Badakhshan, seed, agricultural cultivation of new species and varieties of crops in the Pamirs;
  • introduction and acclimatization of trees and bushes, flowers and decision and herbaceous plants in the highlands;
  • study of the insect fauna of Pamir and mammals, the development of bio methods crop protection from pests and diseases of agricultural crops;
  • protection of flora and fauna of the highlands and the development of meromorphic enterprises to restore violated human bio resdirses.